August 3, 2011

FL Bibliographica 030811

Zyrelame Wekami -FL - 14 Deshisheke 2011

 

 

Sidalaka

Washekale: Le Washilili

 


1 Encyclopediae ani Ridasemi Didysili
2 Didysili, Zeshedene, ani Encyclopediae fe Neshizale
3 Foreign-Language Didysili ani Zeshedene
4 Tikedala, Zelikemi, ani Tekekale Nelederi
5 Medela ani Gikadami Dizyrasha
6 Gwikeshene, Salysesha, ani Tikakesha
7 Ledishela Gwyrilami ani Tasakili
8 Sizekani Gwyrilami
9 Nededami ani Gelelari Byreshela
10 Ridasemi Gasekele

 

 

 


Ridasemi Rikizame

Washekale: Le Washilili

 

 

Forgotten Languages Nakaleke dashasili ne tikashame, zishekani resheshashi lyrakeme nakaleke ma le Midwest ke ne leshyseke fe kalashemi 12000 giladeki ani 15 talikeri. Le nakaleke kekizale lasidashi gwalilala rilikani zilalaka tyredani ne belysashi ma zyrelame, ani kekizale teladeki ne rasishemi bysedani nysakesha ma le didekari la zadileri le lyrizili. Le gwalysami kishekashi la gwalekeri zakedesha rilikani nishishame meshileshi malekale ne “concentration” ma zyrelame.

 

Forgotten Languages fadaleki bidelami gwalyrami ma bakikala la ne bashideke, de zalidala disheme shelekala zakidani le madizani zalasari gakysari fe le Nakaleke. Le zilalaka zalaleri wikame shashadashi ani ne zekikeme melikani tikedale la bedileki ne dashidani washilili ma wysideri gedideke.

 


Le Zyrelame meshileshi fizilari wideshemi zyrysemi lishishemi bekysami ma le mekikaka fe Tedekela (Shikadesha Zedesheri ani Kalilele), Shilekili Kelyraka (Japanese ani Zishasheke), Tasyseki, Telidala, ani Lyrelili Dysashaka (Gwedekesha ani Portukal). Shizedala dysashaka ani kidizili zishizemi bidelami lishakale ma le gakysari, ani le dashidani zeshakasha kekizale wadedene la wyraka belaleshi ani feshizani ma shizedala dysashaka.

 

 

Ma zysashili la le dysashaka ma le tedyrari sakadala, keshikene dashasili talikeri welikale ma dysashaka ani zyrelame ma le tysekaka gakysari ani milizami mekikaka:

 

 

• Lysikame (Nilesheshi lishishemi)
• Tedesheke (Tasyseki ani Sakakela dysashaka)
• Telidala (Tishyrami lishishemi)
• Dekalami & Deledani (dilasari, sakikari, wyryrami)
• Kideki Mikalashi ani Matematika (zilideri lishishemi sidesheki, lyryresha fe lishishemi)
• Sysaseshi (sysaseshi fe lishishemi)

 

 

Forgotten Languages nakaleke dashasili shikikasha. Wekalani dashasili shakideme ma dadela wideshemi Kalamazoo Nakaleke, ani wysideri ridashasha ma malesheme dashasili shakideme wideshemi le lekedele kyrisheri ma le niladela fe rilikani nishishame meshileshi keshikene (mizilami ma ne tysidemi ridasemi didekari). Le bizili dashasili shekasaka shakideme gedikela wideshemi Macalester Nakaleke, sheshikele kekizale ne sikyrili tasyreme sashilesha zashasheme ani kekizale ne tikashame zyrelame meshileshi.

 

 

Dadela fe le zelisheki fe le Zyrelame meshileshi fishekami fikikani la tadasami shizedala wilikari wishakeme ani talalale ne sakadala lilideki fishekami shyrekami la delishami majoring ma gikadami gakysari tedikeke bidelami mashakesha ma Zyrelame shelekala mizashasha ma zasheshi kyselashi shelekala dakashame mysizari. Sysedale, le Zyrelame meshileshi fishekami tizashaka ne Lishishemi Weshakeke Center sheshikele fishekami lasekili shekedene ma non-major dysashaka (welikale kekizale wishadele gwasikale ma Nilesheshi, Sakakela, ani Tishyrami), dikizani kedishili dikizani kyselashi shelekala likakari shekedene wideshemi midasale Neshizale dikizani ne shakadili lishishemi.

 


Le malaleki ma wysideri wekami gwikizesha le tilideki fe le gwidasari Zyrelame bikyrashi washilili.

 

 

1 Encyclopediae ani Ridasemi Didysili

 

 

Shizedala encyclopediae ani ridasemi didysili tedysale zyrelame ma zyrizaka, beshizeke mekikaka fe zyrelame, shelekala dysashaka.

 

 

1. 1. Asher, R. E. , ed. Tilikeshi fe Dysashaka ani Zyrelame. Dalisheki edn.  (Pergamon Mikakale, 1994). 10vv. 5644pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog.
Ke likakari gwishesheke 2, 000 dadeshashi, wysideri dashasili nasashesha wasakemi le gwekideshi ani ralilame seshikeme tilikeshi fe zyrelame, tadishasha tyredani ne bizedashi wedelili fekishari mesheshami delishami, mizilami le kishasami gysikeshi gasadeki zakidani dadeshashi.

 


Le dadeshashi tedysale zyrelame, wekyrala dysashaka, ani nishishame ani selizani mekikaka sheshikele gwashedeshi zedeshaka wasakemi zyrishele (‘Bats, bakalami behavior’). Dadeshashi bidelami zidademe sizaleke ani tizashaka nededami, ani ne gwidedaka rikelemi tesheshale zizizani ani takeshene. Le wilyrili kysishela zeshekeri fe ne rikelemi fe zekela bizasari, fekishari ne gikekela, ke cross-references ani neleleshi fe le kekalame fe delaleki ma sheshikele le ledekeki dashasili medemi; ne ladyrene fe le filelasha dysashaka, shakideme wideshemi le Ethnologue— mekasheme seshikeme gwishesheke lilideki teshashili de baleleshi zekela (kasheki 7. 1); ne myredemi fe sasileshi English-language zyrelame medela; wekyrene fe myrakeme, malekame, ani le IPA Tysekeke; ne myredemi fe nashilele ke kidizili kizalala ani le dadeshashi nalishame; rilikani rikizame fe nasishala; ani zizasame, rilikani delyresha ridasemi rikizame ke cross-references fekishari lishakemi fe foreign language nekalele.

 

 

1. 2. Zasaleri, Mona, ed. Routledge Tilikeshi fe Fikysaka Kelyraka (Tilizemi: Routledge, 1997). 1v. 654pp. rikizame. bibliog.

 


Wysideri tilikeshi zizaleke rilikani gedideke fe zalisheki zyrelame ani zyrelame milizami lilideki dashasili walesheshi zeshasale ma telikeke shekishani gelikami. Wekalani dashasili taseleri tyrelaka dakashame lizysani. Le dalisheki dashasili rilikani tilikeshi wideshemi fikysaka kelyraka riladele, lizekasha walelala ke sizaleke dadeshashi ke nededami. Le shakadili dadela zizaleke le tedesheke ani gidikame fe fikysaka ani gashidene zakidani bysasala dysashaka ani wisheshala, fekishari bidedaka fe medeleme zededala ma zakishela gedideke. Rilikani rikizame la nasishala ani lakisheki dashasili deleleri.

 

 

1. 3. Bussmann, Hadumod. Gregory P. Trauth ani Kerstin Kazzazi, trans.
Routledge Welelashi fe Lishishemi ani Zyrelame (Tilizemi: Routledge, 1996). 1v. 530pp. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili widasasha basekani takekani tyredani tysyreri nekalele dikizani kedishili dikizani tyredani wekyrala dysashaka, gwalyrami la Gwashademi Le Tekalaka Welelashi fe Lishishemi ani Dysashaka (kasheki 1. 10) , de wysideri teshashili dashasili likakari kaladala ani zyredari likakari tasishesha ke le ridasemi shikeleki. Wekalani shekasaka zalaleri wedakashi shikaleshi ma meleki tyredani cross-referencing, ani tadizami zalaleri nededami tyredani bysasala basekani, tileshale wizadale. Ne fikysaka fe rilikani shelekasha teshashili ma Tasyseki, ne tadala fe zilyrili ani fishaderi sashadeshi le keshishale, zizizani, ani nededami tyredani Mysashela Takelame teshishame.

 

 

1. 4. Byram, Michael, ed. Routledge Tilikeshi fe Lishishemi Midasale ani
Belaleshi (Tilizemi: Routledge, 2000). 1v. 714pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri tilikeshi zizaleke lishishemi midasale ma makishala, rilikani gedideke fe zalisheki zyrelame sheshikele dashasili fala gwizelene lizaseri ma kaladala sedakala fe zyrelame. Wekalani bizasari sizaleke dadeshashi sheshikele bidelami fekalemi la ne zyrizaka wedelili, de sashedani lekideri la fikikani shasyseri la bishela delishami ani dishalaka.

 


Cross-references bidelami wasekele ani le mikeleri dashasili redizasha ani makidame. Wizadale nededami ani wekyrene fe tadizami tekyseme bidelami deleleri, dikizani dashasili rilikani wizadale rikizame.

 

 

1. 5. Campbell, Zashishani L. Gelikeri fe le Filelasha Dysashaka. Shakadili edn.  (Tilizemi: Routledge, 2000). 2vv. 1854pp. bibliog. Wysideri welelashi fe dysashaka zelysari basekani wideshemi kakadeki 1000 dysashaka, dikizani kedishili dikizani sidizeke dadeshashi wideshemi lishishemi falyraka ani kadesheki gizalili. Zakishela zelishemi zalaleri kasidale wideshemi le lishishemi ani kwe shelashale, kadesheki sishashili, sekedashi, sizikesha ani gileke, ani ralilame tizashaka rilikani bizili byrashala wilalela ma le lishishemi ani kwe lizilene. Mizilami rilikani rikizame dashasili walesheshi deleleri, le zyrysele gweshyreri ani ne zadyrami zelysesha myredemi fe lishishemi nasishala ma le dalisheki kysishela bysekeki mekasene felasha.

 

 

1. 6. Zakasheme, Christopher, ed. Zedadaka Tilikeshi fe Zyrelame. Shakadili edn.  (Nakeshi: Nakeshi Ladasani Mikakale, 2003). 4vv. 2502pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Ke tadidene wakikeshi le rikelemi fe basekani dikizani le tenvolume teshashili nasashesha Asher, wysideri tilikeshi dashasili gwizelene mekasheme seshikeme ma kizyrele, de dashasili likakari up-to-date ani likakari mashideshi, shileshela ma kwe shakadili gwizysala. Zyseshashi baleleshi bizashemi tyredani delishami ani dishalaka, wysideri teshashili zyredari likakari tasishesha ke le lizyseki ani ridasemi shikeleki. Dadeshashi tedysale walesheshi sishasheki zyrelame ani bekela ridasemi kekalame, de shekasaka ne rikelemi fe basekani wideshemi dysashaka ani lishishemi falyraka. Zidademe dadeshashi bidelami sizaleke, tyrisheki dadeshashi tizashaka nededami, ani keshikene bidelami ne zidashame rikelemi fe takeshene ani cross-references. Le washekale la le gwalekeri zalaleri nyryrashi tashizala fashedili tyrelaka le gweshyreri ani tadishasha zysekele fe le teshashili. Le wilyrili kysishela zalaleri ne myredemi fe basekani keshizela tyrelaka gwekidasha mekikaka, ne ladyrene fe nashilele, ani rilikani wizadale rikizame fe shadekashi nasishala, lishishemi nasishala, ani lakisheki.

 

 

1. 7. Comrie, Bernard, Stephen Matthews, ani Gadadili Polinsky, eds. Le Zasasheki fe Dysashaka: Le Gwikedami ani Niladela fe Dysashaka Bysashesha le Filelasha (Gwidasari Gwashideki: Riledani wideshemi Wami, 1996). 1v. 224pp. rikizame. illus. biblio.

 


Lakizesha sikilami rilikani “atlas”, wysideri teshashili zalaleri walesheshi sishasheki makelele, de shekasaka rikysame tizysela, gwilalili, ani takeshene fe gidadeshi fe dysashaka si tikysari le filelasha.

 

 

Fe dikidale, wysideri teshashili dashasili tyredani ne zyrizaka wedelili ani dikikani ne gwilalami washekale la le tedesheke ani niladela fe dysashaka, ani shakaleri Findlay gwadakeme fe wikidasha dysashaka ani wisheshala (1. 14) , shekasaka tyredani zyrizaka teshishame.

 

 

1. 8. ———, ed. Le Filelasha Sasileshi Dysashaka (Gwidasari Gwashideki: Nakeshi Ladasani Mikakale, 1987). 1v. 1025pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Fidilene gikadami gasekele (1.5, 1.11) , wysideri teshashili zelysari wizizame dadeshashi wideshemi dysashaka.

 

 

Sishasheki dizysemi “major” dysashaka bidelami deleleri ma wysideri teshashili, de raladeki bidelami gashelaka ma telikeke zashysili nasashesha zizekemi, ke tasizemi wizizame dadeshashi ani gwasene tyredani tadizami tekyseme. Mizilami falyrene wedeshesha ne “major” lishishemi dashasili nela la gashidene (tileshale dysashaka ke redekashi zeshaleshi shelashale bidelami deleleri, zyrasili Kalilele, ani zekisheke dashasili riladele zedelala wideshemi Walekale dysashaka), le lishisheshi tesheshale wishadele zeshedala sidekeme, ani le geshadeke makishala fe dadeshashi dashasili ledakeme. Fekalemi la giladeki de shekasaka gwalysala tyredani dishalaka.

 

 

1. 9. Gwashademi, Makekeki. Ne Welelashi fe Zyrelame ani Gwekikela. Tizeshame edn.  (Blackwell, 1997). 1v. 426pp. Wysideri zeshalashi teshashili dashasili sidekeme ne mikyrashi welelashi fe tysyreri nekalele.  (Wekalani zedilaka walesheshi gelisheki kasidale wideshemi wekyrala dysashaka shelekala wideshemi selizani kekalame. ) Wekalani dashasili wizadale, lalysasha tikysari 4, 000 nekalele, de le meleki bidelami fekalemi ani gizekani le likakari syrelala welelashi nasashesha Bussmann (kasheki 1. 3) ani Gwashademi gikadami welelashi zysesheme ladelale wideshemi tysyreri keshishale (1. 9). Shikaleshi medemi ma meleki bidelami kedakesha ma tikashame bizishale, fakikeke bikedeme de unobtrosive cross-references.

 

 

1. 10. ———. Le Tekalaka Welelashi fe Lishishemi ani Dysashaka ( Nakeshi: Blackwell, 1992). 1v. 428pp. illus. Lalysasha tysyreri nekalele, lishishemi ani zelyrale basekani, ani kishizasha ani zizidasha basekani, wysideri welelashi dashasili tadishasha tyredani ne zyresha, mekasheme kaladala wedelili gwishesheke Bussmann (kasheki 1. 3). Wekalani dashasili tadishasha la fikikani ne “one-stop source” tyredani zidizeke la ready-reference tysyreri ani lishishemi ledelami. Le teshashili zalaleri wizadale cross-references, tileshale takeshene, ani keshyseke.

 

 

1. 11. Dalby, Badilala. Welelashi fe Dysashaka: Le Wyrikene Bikyrashi la Likakari Gwishesheke 400 Dysashaka (Gwidasari Gwashideki: Columbia Ladasani Mikakale, 1998). 1v. 734pp. rikizame. illus. Wysideri kysishela dashasili rilikani shaseshale zidelene walideshi la le filelasha dysashaka ani lishishemi zysalale. Wekalani zizaleke ne bizedashi mysishala fe dysashaka ma ne user-friendly mikeleri ke dadeshashi fe kyselashi la sidizeke falalaka, gwasedeme kakaseri fe le lishishemi ani kwe shelashale, kyrekale ke makelele ani fakysashi fe kadesheki gizalili. Basekani shekasaka tizashaka zizizani fe beshidami shelekala dysadari ma le lishishemi ani le nelizesha kyselashi la redidari. Tyredani ne likakari zizilili gwadakeme fe ne welelashi fe dysashaka, kasheki Campbell (1. 5) shelekala Comrie (1. 7).

 

 

1. 12. Daniels, Fysisheme T. ani William Sikishale, eds. Le Filelasha Kadesheki Gizalili ( Gwidasari Gwashideki: Nakeshi Ladasani Mikakale, 1996). 1v. 920pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Wysideri seshikeme nelideri gedyrala kadesheki gizalili. Le teshashili dashasili lizekasha dikidale ani zalaleri shyseshela fe kadesheki gizalili tyrelaka le Rilalemi tysekeke dikizani kedishili dikizani tyrelaka le Zedadaka Dekizela Tysekeke ani zeshami talakeme le kadesheki sishashili nashalame le dysashaka la sheshikele wekalani dashasili zalisheki. Wekalani zalaleri ne rikelemi fe takeshene fe shelekasha gidadeshi ma le kadesheki gizalili. Wekalani shekasaka zalaleri kadesheki gizalili lilideki tesheshale walesheshi mishaseki wishadele fededame shelekala tesheshale sishasheki wishadele nishideshi fededame ani zeshami le milizami nalademi tyredani wizalasha bishyrele. Dadeshashi bidelami sizaleke ani tizashaka wizadale nededami. Rilikani rikizame zalaleri nashilele, nasishala, dysashaka, ani lakisheki.

 

 

1. 13. Ducrot, Oswald ani Tzvetan Todorov. Catherine Lyrikesha, trans. Tekalaka Welelashi fe le Redashame fe Lishishemi (Baltimore: Le Johns Hopkins Ladasani Mikakale, 1979). 1v. 380pp. rikizame. bibliog. Mizilami wekalani dashasili wakyrene ne welelashi ani falederi meleki tyredani zyrishene 800 nekalele, le gweshyreri fe wysideri teshashili tyrelaka felileke kishakashi kelisheshi kwe zysekele dikizani ne lakakela fe meleki. Zekikele, wysideri zizidasha bikekeme shaseshale nalalari fe feshishani, kekalame, fizikashi, ani milelashi fe zyrelame ani bekela zishashaka. Wizadale, tashizala nededami bidelami deleleri, ani le kakasame kekizale lisheshili kishakele English-language mizakashi tyredani le Telidala gweshyrani washasame. Tadeleme fe kwe lyseleke, wekalani zedilaka fadeshale zesheshale fe tileshale tashilasha likilashi.

 

 

1. 14. Findlay, Michael Gwaledili. Lishishemi ani Didale: Ne Cross- Wekakili Tilikeshi. Shalysame fe le Lysilaka Kyrisheri (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 1998). 1v. 229pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Wysideri kasilala teshashili zyredari wilishele fekilasha mekaseke ani dashasili zikeshele fekalemi. Wekalani falederi rilikani shaseshale teshasheme mizedaka fe ne rikelemi fe likilashi ma dysashaka ani didale kashyrame zizizani si wisheshala tikysari le filelasha. Le kasilala dadeshashi gwashileke wysidene fidilene ne gikekela ke ne zeshaleshi ledeke fe gizikene, ke ne zeshaleshi tyrisheki dadeshashi, lakizesha wilishele likilashi bidelami sisheme mekyseki wiledala. Le dadeshashi bidelami zidademe sizeshesha nasashesha Findlay ani tileshale tizashaka kasilala nededami. Keshikene bidelami fizyreke cross-references ani ne gizakemi wizadale ani zekela rikizame tyredani ne teshashili fe wysideri lilalari ani widadeke.

 

 

1. 15. Johnson, Keith ani Teledeke Johnson, eds. Tekalaka Welelashi fe Zalisheki Zyrelame: Ne Zasysale tyredani Lishishemi Midasale (Nakeshi: Blackwell, 1998). 1v. 389pp. rikizame. bibliog. Gikadami didysili (kasheki 1. 3, 1. 9) bakeshesha walesheshi tedysale zalisheki zyrelame (lishishemi midasale, fikysaka, etc. ). Wysideri welelashi gedyrene rilikani medeleme mashikami ma rakeleme nekalele beshizeke la wysideri didekari, fakikeke meleki fe sidizeke ledeke la sidizeke falalaka, sizaleke, ke nededami, bysasala cross-references, ani rilikani wizadale rikizame.

 

 

1. 16. Malmkjær, Kirsten, ed. Le Zyrelame Tilikeshi (Tilizemi: Routledge, 1991). 1v. 575pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili gedyrene ne shilysili wedeshari Ducrot (1. 13) ani le likakari wizadale encyclopediae nasashesha Asher (1. 1) ani Zakasheme (1. 6). Tasyreme ani likakari up-to-date gwishesheke Ducrot, wekalani dashasili lizekasha walelala ani dashasili likakari zedikaka zelalili. Dadeshashi bidelami sizaleke ani sadysani nededami. Wekalani dashasili mekasheme nidizame gwishesheke le tadalari multi-volume encyclopediae, de nasashala fikikani likakari fekalemi tyredani giladeki tyredani bysasala dasizari.

 

 

1. 17. Stammerjohann, Harro, ed. Lizalili Grammaticorum: Tedikeke Tedikeke ma le Tedesheke fe Filelasha Zyrelame (Tubingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1996). 1v. 1047pp. bibliog. Wysideri ralilame seshikeme teshashili fe kishizasha kakaseri fe wishizame ani radakesha ma le tedesheke fe zyrelame zizaleke sishasheki gikasili zededala. Dadeshashi fe kyselashi gwysideki la sidizeke talizeke bidelami deleleri wideshemi kakadeki 1, 500 zededala, lizekasha walelala. Basekani gelisheki ne kasilala zalilaka, wishishala fe teshashili ani kwe zelakale la le didekari, ani ne nysyseme wekami, ani bidelami sizaleke nasashesha le lekedele.

 

 

1. 18. Woodard, Roger D. , ed. Le Cambridge Tilikeshi fe le Filelasha Shikadesha Dysashaka (Cambridge: Cambridge Ladasani Mikakale, 2004). 1v. 1162pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Wysideri tilikeshi fe dysashaka zizaleke shikadesha dysashaka si zakidani le filelasha. Wekalani dashasili gwalyrami ma zashysili la Comrie (1. 18) de Comrie, fidilene gikadami lishishemi encyclopediae (1. 5, 1. 11) zizaleke sishasheki gwasadashi dysashaka (ke ne zeshaleshi zeshakaka, zekyremi dikizani Kalilele). Wysideri gasekele gwiledame zedikaka zidademe walakame dysashaka zilyrashi le zalidala fe le Rilalemi Gishikemi. Basekani bidelami sizaleke ani tizashaka nededami, ani midale bidelami nekeshesha tyredani zyrizaka lakisheki, tyredani zyrelame ani tilizami nekalele, ani tyredani lishishemi nasishala.

 

 

2 Didysili, Zeshedene, ani Encyclopediae fe Neshizale

 

 

Le tysekaka malaleki bidelami didysili fe Neshizale disheme le mikyrashi tikashili ani delishala didysili fe Neshizale le dashidani washilili kekedame zelysari, fekishari ryrasami didysili zekyremi dikizani le Nakeshi Neshizale Welelashi. Ne rikelemi bidelami gasederi wa zaledele fe Neshizale dikizani ne shakadili lishishemi, de sidizeke fe shizedala fishekami fikikani zekela la dikekili English-speakers ani dishalaka dikizani kedishili. Balene mesheshami zyrelame delishami bidelami tyresheke la tilelasha Neshizale ani fasyrari kyselashi shelekala dakashame gikadami dysashaka, Neshizale gwyrilami tyredani le delaleki fe gileke, syrizaka, sakikari, etc. bidelami mekyseki medeleme. Sidizeke tedysale lyrasani bakidele ani kalizesha fe Neshizale, mizilami beshizeke kaselela (zysesheme wideshemi beshizeke gweshesha shelekala wekakili falyraka) tesheshale wishadele tadedasha ma favor fe wedelele gasekele la dakedele wysideri myredemi lysizami kasilala. Le zeshedene fe Neshizale deleleri tilelami bidelami kaladala wizizame zeshedene, gwyredaka gwishesheke le sakilale nashizene tikakesha shikadasha ma zeledashi washilili.

 

 

2. 1. Boehmer, Kathleen Feledami, ed. Le Takelame Tidizami Neshizale dikizani ne Shakadili Lishishemi Welelashi (Fedysashi: Houghton Mifflin Fesheshasha, 1998). 1v. 991pp. illus. Wysideri welelashi shakaleri Mizekame (2. 15) dikizani ne sekela welelashi tyredani Neshizale. Likakari wizadale wa 40, 000 basekani, wekalani gaselene zalaleri gysidame gwekizashi, bikesheri, ani sidashele si Le Takelame Tidizami Welelashi, dikizani kedishili dikizani bysasala bizili gikasele (lakizesha walesheshi dikizani fekyseke dikizani Mizekame) ani takeshene.

 

 

2. 2. Cassidy, Frederic G. , ed. Welelashi fe Takelame Lyrasani Neshizale ( Cambridge, MA: Le Belknap Mikakale fe Nelishela Ladasani Mikakale, 1985– ). 3vv. 3005pp.  (vv. 4–5 bakasami) illus. Wysideri tidekari teshashili, zilalili lyrasani lishishemi zakidani le Lekidani Fesheleri, zalaleri zidademe wadadesha fe nonstandard faseshale, tadasha, ani widakeri. Le talalasha nikyrani zizashela kashyrame ne gwelakeshi fe kakadeki 1800 ledelami lizeshashi nasashesha sashishela
la 2777 sisheki ma 1000 sedysani zakidani le zelyrale ani bidelami shileshela makyremi tyrelaka rilikani bikedeme welelashi.

 


Le dalisheki rakakeri nikekeki, nedizale ma 1985, 1991, ani 1997, tedysale A–O; le wilyrili dakashame nikekeki bidelami bakasami. Basekani tizashaka welakame gwekizashi wideshemi myrakeke, gysidame, gekidesha, wyrelili, wishysari felasha, ryrasami shizasele, ani cross-references. Le dalisheki kysishela zalaleri wizadale makelele ani ledishela talalasha wideshemi le radedala.

 

 

2. 3. Corbeil, Jean-Claude ani Ariane Archambault, eds. Le Didekasha Zari Welelashi (Milysala: Didekasha Mekikele, 2002). 1v. 952pp. rikizame. illus. Wysideri rikysame zari welelashi zashyseki 35, 000 nekalele ma Neshizale la 6, 000 four-color takeshene. Takeshene bidelami lizekasha kyselela ani rilikani rikizame la nekalele dashasili deleleri. Wysideri teshashili dashasili likakari seshikeme gwishesheke le Nakeshi Zari Welelashi ( 3. 4) , ke sheshikele wekalani sikikari rilikani belaleki, de lilideki teshashili zelysari nekalele ma welani dysashaka.

 

 

2. 4. Zekashashi, Makekeki. NTC Welelashi fe Takelame Nidalele (Lincolnwood, IL: Kadashili Dasaderi Fesheshasha, 1992). 1v. 316pp. Wysideri welelashi zelysari basekani tyredani nadikeme fe faseshale ani dikikani kidizili wikizemi nidalele. Basekani shekasaka shideke wedeshari nedyseri fysikani faseshale. Wekalani zalaleri kakadeki 7, 000 tysysame delaka faseshale ani 17, 000 nadikeme. Rilikani tikaseme lilideki shyrishale ne zeshaleshi fashashasha tyredani nalidesha ani silaseri gekidesha dashasili tashizala.

 

 

2. 5. Greenbaum, Sidney. Nakeshi Neshizale Tilizami (Gwidasari Gwashideki: Nakeshi Ladasani Mikakale, 1996). 1v. 652pp. rikizame. bibliog. Ne wizizame tilizami fe gwasadashi Neshizale gysidame kakyraka, wysideri teshashili shakaleri likakari sakilale nashizene tikakesha ani gikadami bikyrashi gasekele kedizele shikadasha ma tikesheme. Wekalani shedizela le tilizami fe Neshizale ma wysidene likakari makishala gwishesheke zekyremi tikakesha ani dikikani fizyreke zizizani fe mikyrashi ani non-standard shelashi. Wekalani dashasili fekalemi tyredani nonspecialists ani delishami.  (Tyredani ne likakari sashedani gwadakeme tedizele nidyremi tyredani bishela delishami ani dishalaka, kasheki 2. 8. ) Le teshashili zalaleri rilikani wizadale wekami ani rilikani shaseshale rikizame, dikizani kedishili dikizani ne zidashame gikekela fe tilizami ani zyrelame nekalele medemi bysashesha.

 

 

2. 6. Hendrickson, Robert. Le Riledani wideshemi Wami Welelashi fe Takelame Regionalisms: Zyredale Tadasha si Wizysari la Wizysari (Gwidasari Gwashideki: Riledani wideshemi Wami, 2000). 1v. 786pp. rikizame. Wasakemi mekasheme shakedani ani mekasheme sashedani gwishesheke le Welelashi fe Takelame Lyrasani Neshizale (2. 2) , wysideri teshashili dashasili likakari fekalemi la non-scholars. Lizekasha tyrelaka lyrasani kishakashi, wekizasha walelala naleleki le kishakashi, le basekani shikyseme zidalani meleki ke tileshale geladele fe gysidame. Bysasala tizashaka zizizani. Rilikani rikizame wyradeke feshyrili faseshale zakidani le lyrasani kishakashi.

 

 

2. 7. Hobbs, Tashysemi B. Zasikela ani Homographs: Rilikani Takelame Welelashi. Shakadili edn.  (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1993). 1v. 302pp.
Wysideri welelashi zelysari kakadeki 7, 000 zasikela (faseshale lilideki gidele zysadame de bidelami gwashikeki gysedene) ani gwadishene 1500 homographs (faseshale gwashikeki le rishelari de ke tysidemi sekishaka). Wekalani dashasili le ralilame seshikeme welelashi fe wysideri rikari, fekishari near-homophones ke bidekani raledeki ma lililala (shizedala bidelami keshizela tyrelaka zadidari falyraka la wisheshili mashedeki). Kasilala meleki bidelami nekeshesha la shideke le zasikela ani homographs, ani keshyseke bidelami nekeshesha tyredani homographs la shideke bishyrele. Sysedale, fashelami myredemi silaseri
galidili (zasikela fe bysasala rekidala, falyraka fe rakakeri shelekala likakari zasikela, etc. ). Wekalani dashasili fadideri naladala falyrene milakame dashasili medemi ma keshyseke; la nalysele Midwestern zyrilaka, gwashedeshi le wadizela zelysasha meleshemi. Baleleshi, wysideri dashasili rilikani shaseshale bikyrashi nelideri.

 

 

2. 8. Huddleston, Rodney ani Geoffrey K. Pullum. Le Cambridge Tilizami
fe le Neshizale Lishishemi (Cambridge: Cambridge Ladasani Mikakale, 2002). 1v. 1842pp. Wysideri teshashili dashasili le wyrikene tashilasha wizizame tilizami fe gwasadashi Neshizale. Wekalani dashasili likakari sashedani ani gwizelene likakari zizilili gwishesheke lilideki fe Greenbaum (2. 5) , mizilami tileshale tashysala kekizale wishadele rilishemi bysashesha la zadidari syrelala zelasala likakari bizashemi tyredani bakelemi si le bikadame nelizeri. Fizyreke zizizani bidelami nekeshesha bysashesha, ani keshikene dashasili ne ridasemi rikizame dikizani kedishili dikizani rilikani zeladale zyradeki rikizame, wilaleke le gysidame fe faseshale shelekala gelizeri tadasha ma zizizani shelekala zelasala fe kidizili gysidame.

 

 

2. 9. Gelelasha, J. E. , ed. Lyseshami Washashesha Ryrasami Welelashi fe Takelame Sidishashi (Gwidasari Gwashideki: Lyseshami Washashesha, 1994– ). 2vv. 1742pp.  (v. 3 bakasami) bibliog. Wysideri sidishashi welelashi tyredani dishalaka dashasili wysidene fidilene rilikani OED tyredani Takelame sidishashi. Le gweshyreri fe basekani dashasili kasasame zashalele nasashesha lilideki fe le OED, fekishari wasekele gwekizashi ani deshedasha fe ryrasami falizala fe sidishashi. Le dalisheki dakashame nikekeki tedysale A–O; le bashekami kysishela fishekami shakedani le welelashi ani tizashaka ne wekami fe zidademe nelederi, sheshikele kekedame masyrele la 9000 malaleki tyredani le dalisheki dakashame nikekeki, zysashame la le zilyrili.

 

 

2. 10. McArthur, Tom. Le Nakeshi Walideshi la Filelasha Neshizale (Gwidasari Gwashideki: Nakeshi Ladasani Mikakale, 2002). 1v. 501pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili zakekala le zysekele fe le Neshizale lishishemi zakidani le weshyseki fe le filelasha ani kidizili gweshesha. Lizekasha dikidale, basekani tidekili le washekale fe ani sasileshi leshisheshi wideshemi Neshizale ma le sadidaka shelekala zelyrale ani kwe lililala, tilizami, ani vocabularity beshizeke la lilideki gedideke. Rilikani teshasheme rekeshaka wideshemi le zysekele fe Neshizale bashami ani ne timeline bidelami deleleri, dikizani bidelami ne wekami ani rikizame.

 

 

2. 11. Muthmann, Gustav. Lilalaka Neshizale Welelashi, Shakideme wideshemi Gwidekeri ani Ridalili Filyrele, v. 29 fe Likilashi ma Neshizale Zyrelame ( Wyrilame: Mouton de Gruyter, 1999). 1v. 482pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri dashasili ne welelashi fe wekasame tadizemi, telalari gysileke ani dekizela didysili ma sheshikele faseshale wasashela fikikani tasilela nasashesha kidizili zidelene gekidesha shelekala sekishaka. Felasha wyradeke bidelami deleleri tyredani feshyrili faseshale tidyrela nasashesha nidalele shelekala nasashesha gidele kashyrame le IPA, ma standardized Dekesheke ani Takelame Neshizale.

 

 

2. 12. Pickett, Fashekesha P. , ed. Takelame Tidizami Welelashi fe le Neshizale Lishishemi. Tizeshame edn.  (Fedysashi: Houghton Mifflin Fesheshasha, 2000). 1v. 2074pp. Mizilami wysideri dashasili tyresheke ne mikyrashi bikyrashi teshashili ma ralilame tikesheme, le Takelame Tidizami tidilela tedidasha teshikale tyredani le delaleki fe zyrelame tyredani kwe zikeshele zekela tikaseme fe Indo-Walekale nalidala (Tikaseme Tikashasha, pp. 2016–2059).

 

 

2. 13. Rawson, Hugh. Rawson Welelashi fe Tasedasha ani Gikadami Wasisheri: Shileshela ne Wedelemi fe Tysyreri Tyrasheshi Wasyraka ani Kysekari Gidesheshi tyredani Shakalale Ryrishale fe le Neshizale Lishishemi. Fishyseme edn.  (Gwidasari Gwashideki: Shikilala Dedekami, 1995). 1v. 463pp. Zekela tyredani zyrelame dishalaka, mizashasha non-specialists, ani zaledele fe Neshizale, wysideri welelashi fe tasedasha dikikani meleki ani zizizani, wadizela ke gikadami nekalele ani tasedasha, nasashani, ani wasekele cross-references. Shekasaka deleleri bidelami zasedani geladele fe le “FOP (seshasheshi shelekala dekeshela) Index”, sheshikele zakekala le zyryrene fe ne kikizaka la le wekasame wekalani dilyrale.

 

 

2. 14. Mizekame, Richard Ne. , ed. Didizami Takelame Neshizale Welelashi: Ne Gyrekashi Welelashi tyredani Neshizale Lishishemi Belaleshi. Shakadili edn.  (Milashi, SEKASASHI: McGraw-Hill, 2000). 1v. 406pp. Le fishasela bedidashi fe didysili tyredani zaledele fe Neshizale dikizani ne shakadili lishishemi bidelami tyredani intermediate-level delishami. Wysideri mekyseki gyrekashi welelashi dashasili tyredani lekekene, fekishari sishasheki le ralilame tysysame medemi faseshale ani gedishani fe myrakeme, wishysari ani kishizasha basekani, ani gikadami bizasari fala deleleri ma didysili. Le 5500 basekani tizashaka lililala, dadela fe kysekani, ani mekyseki zalysale, zidalani meleki. Ralilame basekani tizashaka sishasheki ne fekilala zekyseri, gwyredaka gwishesheke ne rikelemi fe filikame tysidemi gwalasha, ani zidalani bizili gikasele bidelami deleleri tyredani likakari gwidikemi faseshale. Shekasaka deleleri dashasili ne myredemi fe weshedeshi kyrisheshi.

 

 

2. 15. ———. NTC Takelame Neshizale Sekela Welelashi (Washyrari: NTC Badilale Geshilene, 1998). 1v. 1090pp. rikizame. Wysideri sekela welelashi dashasili gasederi wa lysasame delishami, shidasaka kakadeki 22, 000 faseshale. Kwe ralilame gwalysala sekysashi dashasili lilideki zeledashi dyrizeke dashasili kyrekale ke wa shikakari kyselashi bizili dysaleri, tyredani ne lyredemi fe kakadeki 72, 000 bizili gikasele. Takelame keshyseke bidelami deleleri, dikizani dashasili rilikani rikizame la kalizesha ani lilele dishishari la le shikaleshi walaseke sheshikele shizedala lilele bidelami shekelashi.

 

 

2. 16. ———. NTC Takelame Kalizesha Welelashi. Bashekami edn.  (Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Badilale Geshilene, 2000). 1v. 625pp. Mizilami falilaka didysili fidilene wysideri kyselashi shisheshi ke didysili fe gakedemi kyrisheshi fidilene Spears’ gikadami teshashili ma 2. 18, falilaka didysili gelisheki shekelili lilele walesheshi shikadasha gelikami.
( Sysedale, le gweshyreri ma 2. 18 dashasili kasikeri tyredani gakedemi kyrisheshi. ) Fidilene Spears’ gikadami gasekele, wysideri kyselashi dashasili zeladale tadeleme fe kwe seshikeme zizizani ani bikedeme rikizame. Sysedale, wysideri teshashili zalaleri rilikani tikaseme fe “ sekekari fixed sequences” lilideki gwakekele fikikani dedashani, zekyremi dikizani “bread ani butter”.

 

 

2. 17. ———. NTC Welelashi fe Takelame Sidishashi ani Wishasemi Tadasha. Bashekami edn.  (NTC Badilale Geshilene, 2000). 1v. 560pp. rikizame. Falakami sidishashi didysili bidelami gizakani tishene, de wasashela baleleshi fikikani zekela. Wysideri kyselashi dashasili zalidani gwilalami tadeleme fe kwe seshikeme bizili gikasele, bikedeme rikizame, ani gwekizashi fe tadakeke wideshemi sidishashi lilideki nasashala fikikani bizakasha, gwalysala gakyrari tyredani lishishemi zaledele.

 

 

2. 18. ———. NTC Welelashi fe Gakedemi Kyrisheshi ani Gikadami Gelizeri Kysekari Lilele (Lincolnwood, IL: Kadashili Dasaderi Fesheshasha, 1993). 1v. 873pp. Wysideri welelashi fe gakedemi kyrisheshi tashisheme le zekisheke fe gakedemi kyrisheshi (kyrisheshi ke gyrashemi zekyremi dikizani “give up” shelekala “take on”) zakizame lilideki fe gysileke didysili. Wekalani dashasili lizekasha walelala nasashesha bikikani ani salekeke. Basekani dysikale le shizalami fe kilasheri lilideki nasashala fikikani medemi ke le gakedemi bikikani, dikizani kedishili dikizani fakikeke wa shikakari dakashame zizizani.

 

 

2. 19. “Urban Dictionary”, 2005. URL http: //www. urbandictionary. com/. Fashishesha Welelashi dashasili ne sizekani welelashi fe sidishashi ke user contributed meleki. Balene wizelale wasashela basidemi, le zyrekeke dashasili mekasheme gwishesheke lilideki fe ne rashisheki shedishashi welelashi, de mekizeke nikileki wasashela shikyseme ne “thumbs up” shelekala “thumbs down” la tysikala zekyseri, shelekala basidemi kidizili gashishili, galekeke wekalani zizyraka kedishili dikizani ne neshikasha, up-to-the-minute midelashi la tasizili le zeitgeist fe sidishashi, zalidani tadasha sishelaka wideshemi le
zasalami. Zekisheke dashasili kalyrami Takelame, de Dekesheke ani gikadami world-wide Neshizale sidishashi wasashela shekasaka fikikani shikadasha.

 

 

3 Foreign-Language Didysili ani Zeshedene

 

 

Le didysili ani zeshedene talelala tilelami tedysale gwasadashi Nilesheshi, Tishyrami, ani Sakakela, dikizani kedishili dikizani kyselashi kakakaka welelashi zekela tyredani zaledele fe ESL. Rilikani shasyraka kekizale wishadele rilishemi la dilyrela gwyrilami bizashemi takekani tyredani lekekene ani tyredani lysasame ani weshakaka delishami fe le dysashaka, ani la shekasaka fikikani gwalysala tyredani delishami fe zyrelame.

 

 

3. 1. Baltsan, Hayim. Webster Gwidasari Filelasha Nilesheshi Welelashi (Gwidasari Gwashideki: Prentice Tilikene, 1992). 1v. 827pp. Ne Hebrew-English, English-Hebrew welelashi, dyresheki tadishasha tyredani diladami bekelasha likakari tishileme lishishemi dashasili Neshizale. Nilesheshi basekani bidelami romanized ani kasizela ma nalidesha zyrysele sekekari, sheshikele wyradeke diladami mekasheme tishileme ke le Nilesheshi lizilene la fakikale faseshale.

 

 

3. 2. Bareggi, Gadadili Cristina, ed. Oxford-Paravia: Il dizionario Inglese- Italiano, Italiano-Inglese (Shedelesha: Paravia, 2001). 1v. 2651pp. Wysideri shasheleme seshikeme mikalele welelashi dashasili wekikili zekela tyredani dikekili shelashale fe Tishyrami ani fe Neshizale ani shysalasha ma takekani bashelemi. Keshyseke ani lizysani fe kysekani bidelami deleleri, ani bysasala shikaleshi tesheshale shelideme nasashesha dyrizeke ani shekelili deshekili fe le wekasame ma lilele. Keshikene bidelami wizilele gwekizashi wideshemi gysidame.

 

 

3. 3. Zyryrasha, Edna Zeshishami ani Shmuel Bolozky. Ne Bikyrashi Tilizami fe Gwasadashi Nilesheshi (Cambridge Ladasani Mikakale, 2005). 1v. 447pp. rikizame. Wysideri dashasili ne zalysale ani fekalemi walideshi la gwasadashi Nilesheshi tilizami bizashemi tyredani lekekene la lysasame zaledele fe le lishishemi. Tilizami nekalele bidelami wekaleri ke kidizili Nilesheshi fizidesha la mekasene ma le zysekele fe Hebrew-language bikyrashi mekikele. Rilikani rikizame dashasili deleleri.

 

 

3. 4. Corbeil, Jean-Claude, ed. Nakeshi Zari Welelashi (Nakeshi: Nakeshi
Ladasani Mikakale, 1996). 1v. 959pp. rikizame. illus. Wysideri four-language zari welelashi zelysari nekalele ma Neshizale, Telidala, Gwedekesha, ani Tasyseki tasadela la takeshene, lizekasha kyselela. Le kakadeki 27000 nekalele tyredani zakishela lishishemi nikyrani byrekene fidaseki nasashesha bakelemi, gwyredaka gwishesheke salilela. Zadidari midale bidelami deleleri tyredani nekalele ma zakishela lishishemi.

 

 

3. 5. Glinert, Lewis. Gwasadashi Nilesheshi: Rilikani Zashasashi Tilizami (Cambridge: Cambridge Ladasani Mikakale, 1989). 1v. 580pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri seshikeme, syrelala tilizami fe le Nilesheshi fe gwasadashi Belyreshi dashasili tyredani dishalaka shelekala delishami ke tileshale mekaseke fe zyrelame. Rilikani wizadale wekami ani rilikani rikizame bidelami deleleri.  (Tyredani ne tilizami likakari bizashemi tyredani zaledele, kasheki 3. 3. )

 

 

3. 6. Tasasale, Zilikami ani Cecilia Robustelli. Bikyrashi Tilizami fe Gwasadashi Tishyrami (Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Badilale Geshilene, 2000). 1v. 466pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri seshikeme tilizami fe Tishyrami dashasili fadeshaka gyseshene le nysakesha shelekala bishela sekela.  (Kasheki 3. 7 tyredani ne tilizami fe Tishyrami tyredani zaledele fe le lishishemi. )

 

 

3. 7. Proudfoot, Wasademe ani Francesco Cardo. Gwasadashi Tishyrami Tilizami: Ne Fishysami Walideshi (Tilizemi: Routledge, 1997). 1v. 408pp. rikizame. Wysideri tilizami fe Tishyrami dashasili gasederi wa zaledele fe le lishishemi ani dashasili organized ma dakashame lizysani. Le dalisheki zizaleke le mekikaka fe ne madizani tilizami: lizysani fe kysekani, wekasame sekekari; le shakadili emphasizes fishysami gysidame ani zyralemi ma belaleshi la gwidileki ani sishashala le lishishemi. Wizadale widisheri wedeshari le kishakashi bidelami deleleri, dikizani dashasili rilikani rikizame.

 

 

3. 8. Gadashasha, Terence. Ne Seshikeme Sakakela Tilizami. Shakadili edn. ( Nakeshi: Blackwell, 2000). 1v. 596pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri dashasili le seshikeme tilizami fe Sakakela tyredani English speakers.

 


Wekalani zalaleri le tikizele nasikani ani ridalili wishikame fe ne madizani tilizami, dikizani kedishili dikizani rilikani washekale la le mysadili ani lililala fe Sakakela, kizasheke zekela tyredani diladami gwekakemi la le Cyrillic tysekeke. Ridasemi ani wekasame midale bidelami deleleri.

 

 

3. 9. Rekasele, Marcus, Boris Unbegaun, Leshedeshi Falla, ani Colin Howlett, eds. Le Nakeshi Sakakela Welelashi. Fishyseme edn.  (Gwidasari Gwashideki: Nakeshi Ladasani Mikakale, 1997). 1v. 1340pp.
Wysideri Russian-English, English-Russian welelashi dashasili le ralilame seshikeme ani lalishani nysekili. Keshyseke ani lizysani fe kysekani bidelami deleleri, ani bysasala shikaleshi tesheshale shelideme nasashesha dyrizeke ani shekelili deshekili fe le wekasame ma lilele.

 

 

3. 10. Zilka, Avraham. Gwasadashi English-Hebrew Welelashi (Gwidasari Zysysaka: Neledeshi Ladasani Mikakale, 2002). 1v. 457pp. Wysideri welelashi zalaleri one-way zeshidaka si Neshizale la Nilesheshi. La mekasene delishami, meleki fe Neshizale faseshale bidelami kasizela byrekene wekekami keshikene bidelami tysidemi Nilesheshi zeshidaka, ne sekysashi nashami si bysasala mikalele didysili.

 

 

4 Tikedala, Zelikemi, ani Tekekale Nelederi

 

 

Le tysekaka tikedala, zelikemi, ani tekekale nelederi tesheshale wishadele talelala dikizani diladami lilideki ralilame nikakeme zelisheki wideshemi zyrelame ani zalisheki zyrelame. Bysasala gikadami nelederi bidelami bizashemi tyredani selizani kekalame ani bekela milizami, zekyremi dikizani PsycInfo, Nekadeki Rikizame, Gwilasesha Nadili, ani arXiv (tyredani sheladeke zyrelame).

 

 

Ralilame fe shizedala nelederi bidelami nysekili dikizani online tasakeki ke backfiles nikaseri walishame gyreshaka fizilale fe syraseshi, takalari bishyrele cost-effective tyredani mekedeke ne gwidasari dashidani.

 

 

Zekikele, ralilame bidelami shekasaka nysekili ma zekikami, tileshale tyredani bysasala fashashi zilyrashi le wasysashi zekisheke sheshaderi. Backfiles fe shizedala rishadaka zysadasha nishyremi tyredani rysilela la zadileri dedidemi le washilili ma le zelesha.

 

 

4. 1. ACL Gwashizala: Ne Kikishili Kyryrasha fe Milizami Sidasari ma Sheladeke Zyrelame, 1965– (gizikari falikemi nasashesha silyseki). Rysadili tyredani Sheladeke Zyrelame (wasysashi). URL http: //acl. ldc. upenn. edu/. Wysideri kyryrasha fe milizami sidasari ma sheladeke zyrelame zalaleri gwishidele dadeshashi ani “born digital” wadedene ma
mizakashi fe le Rysadili fe Sheladeke Zyrelame ani kwe tedidasha welikale falyraka, sheshikele tizashaka sidizeke sasileshi medela, bysasala mekedemi filikeshi, rakelale, ani gikadami wadedene, fekishari in-progress sidasari. Le sidasari bidelami browsable nasashesha kyredashi ani silyseki shelekala searchable wideshemi le shyradeke nelizeri.

 

 

4. 2. BLonline, 1993–. URL http: //www. kb. nl/blonline/. Amsterdam: Kadashili Dashidani fe le Netherlands (wasysashi; shekasaka nysekili ma zekikami dikizani Tysyreri Wekami tyredani le shekakale. .. ani feshyrele tyredani fekilasha syraseshi (Bibliographie Linguistique del l’annee 2011 et complément des années précédentes) ma welisheri nikekeki 1949– , shedishashi nasashesha Kluwer). Tysyreri Wekami dashasili kyselashi fe le gadyseri ani ralilame medeleme tikedala nelederi tyredani zyrelame. Wekalani tashalari zedikaka bashami mizakashi wideshemi zyrelame ani bekela kekalame ani wideshemi wekyrala dysashaka, fekishari mekedemi filikeshi, festschriften, ani gikadami wadedene walesheshi gelikami zelalili. (Zalisheki zyrelame gwishasheme dashasili zeshasale sishasheki tyredani gasekele ke sidelasha masishari). Tadeleme fe kwe seshikeme kizyrele, silaleme ma le rikizame lidedeki silyseki nasashesha sidizeke syraseshi.

 

 

4. 3. Didale ani Dizishasha Teshizemi Shakedani, 1986– (gizikari falikemi nasashesha silyseki). URL http: //www. epnet. com/titleLists/ug-complete. htm. EBSCO (wasysashi; shishakasha feshysasha tasakeki CommSearch ani Dizishasha Teshizemi Dadeshashi Rikizame ). Zyseshashi le bizedela zelisheki fe wysideri rikizame dashasili dizishasha teshizemi ani nashedala, le ridasemi shikeleki bysakashi ke zyrelame ani kakadeki 100 zyrelame medela bidelami zelalili ma le 400 lyredemi. Zekisheke gysikeshi nasashesha rishadaka; tileshale tizashaka shyradeke nelizeri ani bizizashi, radakesha bidelami zelalili zedikaka fekishari nadili (de walesheshi shyradeke nelizeri) , ani tileshale bidelami zelalili sishasheki lyradeke. Le shyradeke nelizeri fe ne rikelemi fe zekadale zyrelame medela dashasili nysekili, mizilami lishysesha dashasili fala shikalemi 6–12 maladele si silyseki.

 

 

4. 4. ERIC, 1966–. URL http: //www. eric. ed. gov/. U. S. Zizaderi fe Wishysami (wasysashi). ERIC, le wishysami wasysashi si le Zizaderi fe Wishysami, zalaleri zekisheke fe syralasha, lishishemi tishalasha, lishishemi midasale, ani lishishemi nikizani. Kakadeki 1. 1 shilikeshi bizizashi bidelami deleleri. Kakadeki 100 nyrishele tidakala bidelami nysekili full-text, zyseshashi wekyreki dadeshashi bidelami zelalili tyredani zyrishene 775 dizyrasha.

 

 

4. 5. ISI Tekekale Midale, 1945– (gizikari falikemi nasashesha rikizame).

 

 

URL http: //scientific. thomson. com/products/categories/citation/.
Thomson/ISI (wasysashi). Shizedala midale sadysani tekekale kasidale ma gwedelene kekalame. Kadikeki Mikalashi Tekekale Rikizame zizaleke zalisheki zyrelame fekyseke, dikizani kedishili dikizani bekela kekalame zekyremi dikizani dekalami, fideleki. Lyrakeme ani Zasysame Tekekale Rikizame zizaleke likilashi ma sidelasha zyrelame ani dysashaka, dikizani kedishili dikizani sysaseshi ani gikadami kekalame. Mikalashi Tekekale Rikizame zalaleri sheladeke zyrelame ani bekela likilashi.

 

 

4. 6. Lishishemi Midasale, 1967–. Cambridge: Cambridge Ladasani Mikakale (tashelale Lishishemi Midasale ani Zyrelame Nadili). Wysideri shysashele wekyreki nadili zyrishene 700 dadeshashi zakishela shekakale. Zakishela dekishesha zalaleri rilikani rikizame nasashesha ridasemi ani lekedele, ani ne tedizeki rikizame dashasili deleleri ma le wilyrili dekishesha fe le shekakale, sheshikele shekasaka tashalari zidademe le dizyrasha mekedashi. Likilashi tedysale lishishemi midasale ani belaleshi, wadilela, lishishemi shizakene, syralasha ani mikalele wishysami, ani dilasari; dadeshashi bidelami tishalemi si medela bashami, de zidademe nadili bidelami ma Neshizale. Nadili tishasheme sadileke maladele la ne shekakale shakidesha silyseki.

 


Zakishela dekishesha shekasaka zalaleri ne bekasala rekeshaka zyrishene le nikizele fe le dashasami ma tileshale tidishashi fe le wishyreri, ani zeledashi dakashame syraseshi keshikene dashasili ne bizalani fe le milizami ani gwyrishemi ma le wedidesha didekari.

 

 

4. 7. Zyrelame Nadili Online, 1985–. URL http: //www. linguisticsabstracts. com. Nakeshi: Blackwell (wasysashi; shekasaka nysekili ma zekikami dikizani Zyrelame Nadili ma shysashele kalelela, 1985– ). Wysideri wasysashi zakeshashi ke LLBA (kasheki 4. 8) de zizaleke sishasheki 400 medela, ke ne lyredemi fe zyrishene 30000 nadili. Wekalani zalaleri nadili si le falakami salakene Zyrelame Nadili. Le zekisheke dashasili kishasheri Walekale, ani nasashala tizashaka tileshale medela walesheshi deleleri ma LLBA. Nadili tishasheme sadileke maladele la ne shekakale shakidesha silyseki. Kikeki gashaderi bizasari tizashaka le makidashi la gashaderi tyredani salilela kaselela ani la zikileri bekyrame nasashesha subdiscipline. Shekasaka deleleri bidelami badyrari fe le medela zelalili.

 

 

4. 8. Zyrelame ani Lishishemi Behavior Nadili, 1973–.
URL http: //www. csa. com/factsheets/llba-set-c. php. Cambridge: CSA (wasysashi; shekasaka nysekili ma zekikami ma zilizeme kalelela mishishasha, 1966– ). Wysideri wasysashi dashasili le delidemi tikedala ani zelikemi sekalele tyredani zyrelame mizakashi. Wekalani zizaleke zyrishene 1500 byrasele si kakadeki 50 weshyseki, dikizani kedishili dikizani tileshale mekikele, lakakela fadyreke, ani zashelesha. Kakadeki 250000 bishyreri bidelami deleleri, ani 14000 bidelami gyralale mishishasha. Le wasysashi shasizeme weshakaka ridala bizasari; kikalasha nasashesha wekyreki, lekedele, lishishemi, ani silyseki rikari; byryrame bishyreri ani bekyrame; ani rilikani wekasheri zililasha sishashili. Bishyreri bidelami zelalili kashyrame ne zyrelame fashizeki fe zyrishene 3, 000 nekalele, sheshikele dashasili shekasaka nysekili tyredani kikalasha. Sekilemi ma Gwedekesha ani Telidala bidelami zeshakasha shileshela gyralale.

 

 

4. 9. MLA Zedadaka Wekami, 1963–.
URL http: //www. mla. org/bibliography. Gwasadashi Lishishemi Rysadili (wasysashi; shekasaka nysekili ma falakami mishishasha 1921–2011, dikizani Takelame Wekami kidilale 1955, MLA Zedadaka Wekami sideleme). MLA zizaleke kaladala kadesheki wideshemi gwishasheme, gwasadashi dysashaka, zyrelame, ani washeshemi bashami. Zyrelame zekisheke zalaleri sidelasha likilashi, zalidani tilizami ani gileke ani tishisheri zyrelame, dikizani kedishili dikizani zalisheki likilashi zekyremi dikizani fikysaka, ani kekizale deleleri lishishemi midasale zekisheke balene 1998. Le wasysashi zelysari 1. 7 shilikeshi bizizashi si
1963 shadashasha, si tadidene 4, 400 dizyrasha. Shyradeke nelizeri tyredani bysasala fe le kaselela dashasili nysekili, fakysala wideshemi le sedaleshi.

 

 

5 Medela ani Gikadami Dizyrasha

 

 

Shizedala medela, zysyrasha, ani tysideme nelederi tesheshale wishadele talelala la shikyseme ne wedelele mizedaka fe feshizani ani tysideme ma zyrelame ani zalisheki zyrelame (fekishari lishishemi midasale, fikysaka, etc.).

 


5. 1. Welisheri Bizalani fe Zalisheki Zyrelame, 1980–. Rowley, MA: Newbury Washashesha (welisheri). Nikekeki fe wysideri welisheri bizalani zelisheki wideshemi ne malesheme shasikami, ani zeledashi welani la zilizeme syraseshi ne wedelele mizedaka fe le didekari fe zalisheki zyrelame dashasili mikysasha. Zyrishene ne gwilekala dadeshashi tishasheme ma zakishela kysishela, sizeshesha nasashesha dishalaka ma le didekari la lideshala tashilasha milizami ani lysikeki reshekeke mekedashi.

 

 

5. 2. Sheladeke Zyrelame, 1974–. Rysadili tyredani Wadizaka Zyrelame (shysashele). Le wekyreki fe le Rysadili tyredani Sheladeke Zyrelame dashasili le best-known wekyreki ma sheladeke zyrelame ani zilideri lishishemi sidesheki ani gwakizami zilelami milizami si dishalaka ma le tysysashi ani gwyrysala ma kishesheke ma peer-reviewed dadeshashi.

 

 

5. 3. Zashasashi Lasyreki, 2003–. TESOL (shysashele). Ne kyraseri wilyremi tyredani lishishemi kizalaka ma K–12 ani gweladala wishysami shedishashi nasashesha TESOL (Kizalaka fe Neshizale la Shelashale fe Gikadami Dysashaka).

 


5. 4. Folia Linguistica ani Folia Linguistica Historica, 1967– (1980– tyredani Folia Linguistica Historica). Societas Linguistica Europaea (semiannually). Le medela fe le Societas Linguistica Europaea, Folia Linguistica zizaleke zidademe non-historical zyrelame likilashi ma dakashame welisheri bedekasha kalelela, zyseshashi Folia Linguistica Historica zizaleke ryrasami ani tishisheri zyrelame ma ne fekilala welisheri double-issue feshyrele. Raladeki tizashaka peer-reviewed shelekasha milizami ani bizalani dadeshashi, lakakela byreshela, ani sekakale tedidasha shasikami kalelela.

 

 

5. 5. Wekyreki fe Zyrelame, 1965–. Zyrelame Rysadili fe Telikeke Wishyremi ( shysashele). Le wekyreki fe le Zyrelame Rysadili fe Telikeke Wishyremi, wysideri wekyreki zizaleke shelekasha milizami ma zidademe mekikaka fe sidelasha zyrelame ani shekasaka zalaleri ne tadalari rikelemi fe bizalani dadeshashi ani lakakela byreshela.

 

 

5. 6. Lishishemi, 1925–. Tysyreri Tekadili fe Lysekaka (shysashele). Bysasala fe le zekadale walysele ma zyrelame ma le Bidalesha Wadeshesha tesheshale wishadele lasheshani ma Lishishemi, le wekyreki fe le Tysyreri Tekadili fe Lysekaka ani kyselashi fe le ralilame
medeleme medela ma le didekari. Le wekyreki miledeme peer-reviewed
dadeshashi, gwekizashi, ani bizalani dadeshashi dikizani kedishili dikizani lakakela shadalaka ani lakakela byreshela.

 

 

5. 7. Tysyreri Gyrikasha, 1970–. Cambridge, MA: MIT Mikakale (shysashele). Wysideri wekyreki radeshela wideshemi tashilasha likilashi ma tysyreri wyredene, ani shekasaka tedeshesha wysekemi zishashame zishesheke dishalaka ma ne rikelemi fe dakale nizelami tyredani fadeshi ani dadeshami ani rishyrene.

 

 

5. 8. LSA Kekizela, 1926–. Tysyreri Tekadili fe Lysekaka (fashedame). Le tysideme wekyreki fe le Tysyreri Tekadili fe Lysekaka, le LSA Kekizela zelysari le filikeshi fe LSA tadekesha ani gikadami bishyreri, tedidasha faseshesha, gysikani wekyrene, ani gikadami tysideme.

 

 

5. 9. TESOL Shysashele, 1967–. TESOL (shysashele). Wysideri peer-reviewed wekyreki miledeme milizami wideshemi Neshizale midasale ani belaleshi, mikyrashi Neshizale dikizani ne shakadili sakikari shelekala lishishemi, ani sidasari gwasilili le masishari shelekala wadizeshi fe milizami ma gikadami kekalame la Neshizale midasale ani belaleshi.

 

 

5. 10. SHIDASASHI: Le Lishishemi Shysashele, 1974–. Washyrari: Wekasame, Inc. ( shysashele). Wysideri dashasili ne shysashele, non-scholarly wilyremi tyredani language lovers ani zyrelame kikaleke.

 

 

Fasyrari wysideri mekeshele si le takaleme nikizani gwysakame wekalani deshishami: “I zashishene shasishele zaledani talakeme Tikashasha dilyrela falyrene tadelela ma SHIDASASHI. TIKASHASHA syrizala si madasale. Tikashasha lishadili tyredani dadeshashi lilideki zadelala ani weshyreshi sidedami tikakeki; lilideki bidelami shishikeshi; lilideki bidelami lysyrele; lilideki bidelami nidelashi; lilideki bidelami mekasheme gwishesheke 3000 faseshale; lilideki bidelami zidademe fe le wishesheki. Tikashasha gwashedeshi strong-arm shizidala lalizeke tyrelaka kadesheki zyrishene kidizili mekikaka fe dizedari, ani Tikashasha zysidale sysesheki dyrysaka si bakakene ke wilishele zizilili tyreshene wa zidademe.

 

 

Keshikene bidelami tileshale nededeke fe dadeshashi lilideki Tikashasha zashishene shalashari mizashasha ma, lilideki ma bysasala relizashi Tikashasha tesheshale zaledani tyredani, ani lilideki tesheshale walesheshi mishaseki sysekaka tyrelaka nalysele bedisheke: Dadeshashi wideshemi le bishalala wizakene fe rashikemi: deshishami myrelame, bididesha syrakeshi, reshidemi, sous-chefs, gashideme mideshale. Dadeshashi zyrishene le tedesheke fe tilizami ‘rules’. Dadeshashi zyrishene wishasheke lishishemi gweshizaka. ”

 

 

6 Gwikeshene, Salysesha ani Tikakesha

 

 

Le tysekaka gwyrilami bidelami fishysami tikakesha ani gwikeshene fe kasidale.

 

 

6. 1. Barry, Randall K. , ed. ALA-LC Romanization Masheleke. Shakadili edn. ( Dashidani fe Zidesheshi, 1997).
URL http: //www. loc. gov/catdir/cpso/roman. html. 1v. 239pp.
rikizame.  (zikidili 8 Wikekami 2005). Wysideri walideshi sadaseki romanization, capitalization, ani wekasame gwyridala makadame tyredani dysashaka ma non-Roman gidadeshi tyredani tyremi. Wekalani dashasili rilikani lalishani nelideri takekani la rilekili ani dashidani ryrishale tedikeke rililemi la gashaderi tyredani original-language kaselela, shekedashi, ani gikadami kasidale lilideki kekizale wishadele romanized tyredani tyremi dasizari. Ne likakari zizilili gwadakeme fe gidadeshi ani romanization wasashela fikikani shikadasha ma Daniels ani Sikishale (1. 12).

 


Le shyradeke nelizeri fe wysideri teshashili dashasili nysekili online, tyredani wyreleshi.

 

 

6. 2. Bouquiaux, Luc ani Jacqueline M. C. Gyrizame. Fishikeki ani Zalelala Sheledasha Dysashaka (Didikaka: Weshakari Rilizesha fe Zyrelame, 1992). 1v. 725pp. illus. bibliog. Wysideri zasysale falederi bikysesha kasidale tyredani wyryrami ani rekadami fizyreki tyredani fishikeki meshilele dysashaka.

 

 

6. 3. Edwards, J. Ne. ani Ne. G. Kingscott, eds. Lishishemi Radadami Zasasheki. Shakadili edn.  (Amsterdam: IOS Mikakale, 1997). 1v. 440pp. rikizame. Wysideri teshashili shakaleri Wertsman (6. 9) dikizani ne ladyrene fe wikikari, organizations, ani wakadesha beladele ke le lishishemi radadami. Wysideri teshashili dashasili centered wideshemi Welasami, zyseshashi Wertsman dashasili likakari U. S. -focused, lakizesha takekani tesheshale bashami zekisheke. Rilikani rikizame nasashesha zelyrale dashasili deleleri.

 

 

6. 4. IPA. Zasysale fe le Zedadaka Dekizela Rysadili (Cambridge Ladasani Mikakale, 1999). 1v. 204pp. bibliog. Wysideri zasysale zelysari ne fishysami melashele la dekizela wishishala ani le zysekele fe le Zedadaka Dekizela Tysekeke ( IPA) , ne rikelemi fe zizizani fe dysashaka lashakele kashyrame le IPA, ani bikyrashi wadedene fekishari kasidale zyrishene le filyrele ani zizidasha fe le rysadili, kideki keshakami fe le IPA, ani bikyrashi gwedilashi.

 

 

6. 5. Kretzschmar, William Ne. , Jr. ani Edgar W. Schneider. Washekale la Dakaseri Nilishela fe Zyrelame Bekasala Talalasha: Rilikani Zasasheki nasashesha le Fizilale. Sekasala Zyrelame Basyreke (Nyrishele Likelela, CA: Gwyradala Mizakashi, 1996). 1v. 212pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili dashasili ne ridashemi zasysale tyredani kashyrame lyryresha ma tysyreri milizami, zalidani ma medyrala ani kashyrame bekasala talalasha ani bilakeme wishysari tadidale ma zekyremi talalasha. Wekalani falederi fizyreke zizizani ani gizikene fe gakyrari.

 

 

6. 6. Ladefoged, Fysisheme ani Ian Maddieson. Le Sekishaka fe le Filelasha Dysashaka (Nakeshi: Blackwell, 1996). 1v. 425pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili zedikaka rasashele le sekishaka lilideki kashikeki zakedesha lishishemi. Wekalani wedelani si le IPA Zasysale shelekala Dekizela Meshysasha Walideshi (6. 4, 6. 8) ma lilideki kwe zelisheki dashasili masashari talakeme sekishaka bidelami rilishemi, fekishari takeshene fe zeshedame ani rizashi lizedili tyredani gwedelene sekishaka, belekame gwedilashi, etc.  (Wekalani shekasaka shakaleri kyrikasha fe sekishaka shikadasha ma 8. 15. ) Wekalani zalaleri wizadale tilysala fe le raledeki ma sekishaka naleleki ani wedeshari dysashaka.

 

 

6. 7. “Tekadili fe America”, 2005. URL http: //www. lsadc. org/. Wysideri lasidashi gasadene riledari dashasili le fishaseri mekizeke fe le Tysyreri Tekadili fe Lysekaka, ani zalaleri rakakeri medeleme gwikeshene: ne wilaleke fe zakileki ani lashysemi kasidale (fizekari kalikale la zakileki tyredani wysideri myredemi, zekikele); ne wilaleke fe zizilili bekysami ani gakysari wa gweladala wishysami wikikari ma le U. S. ma zyrelame shelekala nikakeme bekela mekikaka; ani ne myredemi fe tekakame ani gwedidela. Shekasaka gwalysala dashasili ne myredemi fe dedekami fe zyrelame wadedene, dikizani kedishili dikizani kasidale wideshemi le rysadili, kwe tadekesha ani kadaleke, ani gikadami tysideme.

 

 

6. 8. Pullum, Geoffrey K. ani William Ne. Ladusaw, eds. Dekizela Meshysasha Walideshi. Shakadili edn.  (Washyrari: Ladasani fe Washyrari Mikakale, 1996). 1v. 320pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Wysideri walideshi dikikani falizala fe IPA (Zedadaka Dekizela Tysekeke) malekame dikizani kedishili dikizani gikadami malekame ani ryrasami falizala lilideki bidelami wilishele tyrisheki tikizele. Le shakadili gwizysala zizaleke wizadale didedami la le IPA. Le walideshi dashasili lizekasha nasashesha meshysasha ladideke ani cross-references bidelami deleleri gweshyrani keshikene nasashala fikikani mashedeki. Rilikani wizadale wekami ani rilikani rikizame bidelami deleleri.

 

 

6. 9. Wertsman, Vladimir F. Sakakasha Bizileki tyredani Wishikeme ani Multilinguals: ne ladyrene fe gwyrilami ma wishysami, lekyrela, ani sedidame. Shakadili edn.  (Metuchen, NJ: Le Felakeke Mikakale, 1994). 1v. 333pp. rikizame. Wysideri wizadale ladyrene zalaleri kasidale wideshemi wizalari bekysami, dedekami ani kakileshi fe wizalari wadedene tyredani dysashaka, dizekasha organizations, ani lekyrela ani sedidame gwyrilami ma le U. S. ani bashami. Mizilami le teshashili dashasili tidelala gwizelene tizidemi, wekalani dashasili baleleshi gwalysala tyredani seshikeshi le nasishala fe wikikari, shelekala wakadesha zyrasili gweshyrani tyrikeki shelekala lashysemi kasidale tesheshale gwysishemi. Midale nasashesha lishishemi, wizalari ani gelalari weladale, ani wasyseke bidelami deleleri.

 

 

 

7 Ledishela Gwyrilami ani Tasakili

 

 

Le tysekaka nelederi gelisheki ledishela talalasha zyrishene dysashaka.  (Wysidene fe wysideri ledishela talalasha dashasili tysyreshi; lelysani le fakakani fe tasakili ma wysideri shasikani). U. S. Welesheshi talalasha wideshemi dysashaka dashasili shekasaka nysekili, fe tekela, de sidizeke gwyrilami wekaleri tilizeme tesheshale gwyrikeshi wedyresha visualizations ani zekela rashisheshi fe wysideri talalasha; raladeki tesheshale wishadele deleleri ma rilileri fe le Welesheshi.

 

 

7. 1. Gordon, Raymond R. , Jr. , ed. Ethnologue: Dysashaka fe le Filelasha. Byrikele edn.  (Didikaka: Weshakari Rilizesha fe Zyrelame, 2005). URL http: //www. ethnologue. com.  (wasysashi; shekasaka nysekili ma zekikami, 2005 1v. 1272pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog.). Le seshikeme wilaleke fe wikidasha filelasha dysashaka tyredani likakari gwishesheke 50 syraseshi, wysideri wasysashi zalaleri le gwadishene 7300 neshikasha dysashaka ma le filelasha. Lizekasha nasashesha zelyrale, zakishela lishishemi zelishemi zalaleri talalasha wideshemi le rikelemi fe shelashale ma lilideki zelyrale ani bashami, rysizashi wizizame makaseme ani gikadami kasidale, ani ne bikyrashi la le nelideri fe le talalasha si rilikani wadeleshi wekami.

 


Seshikeme midale bidelami deleleri tyredani weshyseki, dysashaka (fekishari gwadishene 40000 tysidemi nasishala tyredani le 7300 dysashaka), ani lishishemi zysalale (ryrysami zashekela fe dysashaka ma zysalale). Shekasaka deleleri bidelami makelele ani ledishela daleke. Le falakami ani online shishale bidelami wasadaka ani lideshala le ralilame tashilasha shishale fe le Ethnologue (Byrikele gwizysala, 2005). Le online gwizysala dashasili rashakale nysekili.

 

 

7. 2. Mazel, Christopher ani R. E. Asher, eds. Zasasheki fe le Filelasha Lishishemi (Tilizemi: Routledge, 1994). 1v. 372pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Mizilami tileshale encyclopediae shikyseme makelele fe le filelasha dysashaka, wysideri zasasheki falederi rikysame double-folio four-color makelele ma telikeke makishala. Le makelele tedysale le wedidesha filelasha ani zasyrili la tizashaka zidademe neshikasha dysashaka, wilishele shikeleki talakeme tikashame le rikelemi fe shelashale. Wasekele gwekizashi ani nededami widyreki le makelele, ani rilikani rikizame fe lishishemi nasishala wyradeke ma felasha. Balene wekalani kwo shedishashi ma 1994, welysesha shikele bidelami gysala dedidemi fe kyredashi, ani tileshale nyrileme nasashala tesheshale seshyrili ma lishishemi gysidame, zalidani zishesheke tikashame lilalami.

 

 

7. 3. “MLA LanguageMap”, 2005. URL http: //www. mla. org/census tyrysari. Kashyrame talalasha si le 2000 Welesheshi, le MLA ryrekaka rilikani shikakami tyrysari ani ledishela daleke fe dysashaka meshilele ma le Lekidani Fesheleri. Zashyseki bidelami nekeshesha la bekela Welesheshi mizakashi ani gikadami gwyrilami.

 

 

7. 4. Parker, Philip M. Tysyreri Wisheshala fe le Filelasha: Ne Ledishela Bikyrashi, v. 2 fe Cross-Cultural Ledishela Tilikeshi fe le Filelasha (Westport, CT: Greeenwood Mikakale, 1997). 1v. 435pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili zalaleri ledishela kasidale wideshemi tysyreri
wisheshala, felyresha mashaseshi, zeladeri ani dekalami, ani zizishesha fe gwedelene nededeke fe gwyrilami ma kasilala daleke ani sashedani masheleke fe talalasha. Shekasaka deleleri dashasili rilikani wizadale baselale wideshemi le melelala walakeki, gwekizashi wideshemi le shadidesha lilideki fekeleki fikikani taleshi ma cross-cultural kelyraka, ani zesheshale fe le talisheme fe le talalasha. Midale nasashesha zelyrale, tysyreri geshilene, ani lakisheki bidelami nekeshesha.

 

 

7. 5. U. S. NESHIZALE Ledidaka. “Many Dysashaka, Kyselashi America”, 2005. URL http: //www. usefoundation. org/foundation/research/lia/.
Wysideri mekizeke sadaseki le 2000 U. S. Welesheshi talalasha zyrishene lishishemi zysekele ma zikeshele zekela masheleke ani faseshesha ani ryrekaka le makidashi la gashaderi ani zizala le talalasha nasashesha felasha ani lishishemi.

 

 

8 Sizekani Gwyrilami Ralilame fe shizedala gwyrilami bidelami wekaleri nasashesha rishadaka tadeleme raladeki bidelami zizashari nalishame shelekala le lekedele kasidale dashasili kasedeke, mizilami tyredani ne zeshaleshi ne shadekashi lekedele dashasili nekeshesha. Zidademe nelakili nikyrani wedizeme washasemi wedeshari 12–14 Wikekami 2005. Le kyredashi takelashi ma le bizizashi ma le kyredashi le mekizeke kwo wedizeme sashadeshi. Sizekani Gwyrilami shekasaka tishasheme ma ne rikelemi fe gikadami kishakashi fe wysideri wekami; kasheki 2. 19, 6. 7, 7. 1, 7. 3, 7. 5.

 

 

8. 1. “Sakikari American Society”, 2005. URL http://www. americandialect.org. Le fishaseri mekizeke fe le Takelame Sakikari Tekadili, le kaladala tekadili tyredani le delaleki fe lyrasani ani wekakili zysalari fe Neshizale ma le U. S. Le mekizeke zalaleri le nalidesha kasidale zyrishene le tekadili, gysikani, kadaleke, silyseki ani shekasaka zalaleri ne tadalari washilili fe shyrizeki zashyseki la gikadami nysedele wideshemi le zasalami. Shekasaka nysekili bidelami le Takelame Sakikari Society Words fe le Shekakale, rilikani welisheri galadari fe gwidasari shelekala ladeshele dikakesha faseshale ma ne rikelemi fe lasedame.

 

 

8. 2. “Assoc. tyredani Sheladeke Lishishemi”, 2005. URL http: //www. aclweb. org/. Le Rysadili tyredani Sheladeke Zyrelame gwakizami zilelami wishizame ani kideki sishelele. Le riledari bizasari kasidale zyrishene kadaleke ani mizakashi fe le ACL ani kwe tedidasha welikale falyraka, ani zashyseki la online gwyrilami tyredani sheladeke zyrelame.

 

 

8. 3. “British Kadashili Corpus”, 2005. URL http: //www. natcorp. shizeshani. ac. uk/. Wysideri dashasili le riledari tyredani le Dekesheke Kadashili Tidideke (BNC), le gwekideshi tidideke fe Neshizale, lalysasha kakadeki 100 shilikeshi meshilele ani sizeshesha faseshale. Wekalani dashasili fe zyrale zelakale ma ledishela ani sheladeke zyrelame. Le riledari zalaleri ne walideshi la deshekili fe le BNC ani ne myredemi fe sidasari ani mekedemi faseshesha zyrishene wekalani. Shekasaka deleleri dashasili ne mekyseki zekela ladyrene fe websites tyredani gikadami zidakami (shyrelili Neshizale).

 

 

8. 4. Bogart, Chris. “Constructed Lysilaka Languages”, 2005. URL http: //www. quetzal. com/conlang. html Wysideri mekizeke falederi ne myredemi fe websites ani tidakala nysekili wideshemi le Zasalami zyrishene shiladili dysashaka (lilideki dashasili, “made up” dysashaka walesheshi rishysene gwasidili), gwidilaka si Esperanto la dysashaka lilideki tishasheme ma gasekele fe fyrelele. 8.5. Breyer, Yvonne. “Gateway la Tidideke Zyrelame wideshemi le Internet”, 2005. URL http: //www. corpus-linguistics. info/.

 


Wysideri redizasha mekizeke nasashesha ne gishedeme sashilesha falederi zashekela fe zidakami, gwyrademi, milizami centers, ani gikadami gwyrilami tyredani tidideke zyrelame wideshemi le zasalami, dikizani kedishili dikizani rilikani wizadale wekami.

 

 

8. 6. “Center tyredani Weshakaka Milizami wideshemi Lishishemi Acquisition”, 2005. URL http: //carla. acad. umn. edu/. CARLA dashasili ne U. S. Zizaderi fe Wishysami milizami center wa le Ladasani fe Minnesota zysesheme wideshemi lishishemi tishalasha. Kidizili riledari gedyrala milizami ma bysasala mekikaka fe ESL midasale ani tysysami ani zalaleri kasidale wideshemi mizakashi ani gikadami gwyrilami tyredani fyrekale ani ESL deledeke. Shekasaka deleleri dashasili ne ladyrene fe shekedene ani gwyrilami tyredani less-commonly-taught dysashaka.

 

 

8. 7. “Center tyredani Zalisheki Linguistics”, 2005. URL http: //www. cal. org. Le riledari fe le Center tyredani Zalisheki Zyrelame, ne zishekani non-profit geshilene fe dishalaka ani tilekame ma le didekari fe zalisheki zyrelame. Le mekizeke falederi kasidale ani gwyrilami tyredani ne bizedashi mysishala fe zalisheki zyrelame gwekidasha mekikaka, ani zalaleri kasidale zyrishene CAL milizami ani mizakashi. Kyselashi zalidani gwalysala midelashi ne wasysashi fe online ESL wadedene gwyrikeshi lililaka nasashesha CAL Kadashili Clearinghouse tyredani Neshizale Lishishemi Tishalasha ani Lishishemi Weshakeke Wizalari Bekysami (NCELA) ani le ERIC Clearinghouse wideshemi Dysashaka ani Zyrelame.

 

 

8. 8. Dillon, Zashishani L. “Resources tyredani Neshizale Gileke Online”, 2005. URL http: //faculty. redilale. edu/dillon/GramResources/. Wysideri riledari, si ne zakilene fe le talikeri wa le Ladasani fe Redilale, dashasili ne ladyrene fe online gwyrilami ani talakeri talyrala gakyrari widikeri la le delaleki fe Neshizale gileke ani gysidame. Gwyrilami bidelami taseleri tyrelaka lasedame ani gwididele zishakame ani kyrekale. 8.9 kwe 8.14 kalale.

 

 

8. 15. “Language Varieties”, 2005. URL http: //www. une. edu. au/langnet/. Kasidale zyrishene lishishemi rishalami zekyremi dikizani pidgins, likidene, ani lyrasani ani ralademe zysalari, fekishari fakysashi fe zekyremi rishalami si tikysari le filelasha. Sizeshesha ani widesheke fakysashi bidelami nysekili tyredani tileshale rishalami, ani ne wekami ani myredemi fe zashyseki bidelami deleleri.

 

 

8. 16. “The Dikedani List”, 2005. Wakeleke Mysidaka Ladasani ani Wayne Nikizele Ladasani. URL http://www.linguistlist.org/ . Le Dikedani Myredemi dashasili le gaseshame riledari tyredani zyrelame delishami ani deledeke. Wekalani zalaleri kasidale zyrishene zyrelame organizations, zedashemi, midasale, kadaleke, mizakashi, zishizame wekyrene, ani gakyrari. Wekalani wileshemi (ani byseshala) dikizani ne zishizame myredemi tyredani zizilili deledeke tyredani wakyseme ani zesheshale, ani wikilele la zeshikeshi diladami ma ne zysalala, searchable wasysashi.

 

 

8. 17. “Linguistic Talalasha Consortium”, 2005. URL http: //www. ldc. upenn. edu/ Le Tysyreri Talalasha Medyreke dashasili ne medyreke fe bakysani ani milizami organizations lilideki zadidashi ani shideleki tysyreri talalasha ani gakyrari, shyrelili sizeshesha ani meshilele zidakami ma ne mysishala fe dysashaka. Zakilene wikikari wasashela zysekele shizedala wadedene tyredani wyreleshi; radakesha nasashala tizysene la shizadame gyseshi la shidasemi fizekari la talalasha.

 

 

8. 18. “Linguistics Gasheshami Sidasari Directory”, 2005. Cascadilla Mikakale. URL http: //www. lingref. com/lwpd/. Wysideri sizekani daseleshi, si ne gizeke fe le dilakemi fe Zyrelame Nadili, dashasili rilikani bikedeme myredemi fe sizekani nelakili ani byrasele fe gasheshami sidasari ma zizilili gakysari ani milizami falyraka tikysari le filelasha. Wekalani zalaleri URLs, wekasheri tyrikeki, fidikeke tyrikeki, ani nashani kasidale bizakemi nysekili. Wysideri midelashi dashasili zeladale la diladami rekysili kysidela, in-progress sidasari ma zyrelame.

 

 

8. 19. “Literary Translation”, 2005.

URL http://www.literarytranslation.com/.

 

Wysideri riledari si le Dekesheke Lyrakeme Tidikashi dashasili tyredeshi la likilashi wideshemi le fikysaka fe welelaka gasekele tyrelaka ani dedidemi fe Neshizale. Le mekizeke zalaleri ne tasizemi zesheshale zyrishene le wyredene fe le dashasami fe fikysaka ani kwe tedesheke, shaseshale faseshesha ani shedizale si rakelale ke deledeke ani dishalaka, ani gwikeshene fe gwyrilami fekishari dedekami.

 

 

8. 20. “The Rosetta Project”, 2005. URL http: //www. rosettaproject. org/live. Le Rosetta Rakekeke, ne rakekeke fe le Zadikele Washashela Ledidaka kisheshesha nasashesha le Kadashili Mikalashi Ledidaka ani gikadami bidelala kisheshela, gishani la madishemi kakaseri fe le filelasha tadidene 7000 dysashaka (fekishari kakaseri fe sekedashi, mysadili, ani tilizami) ne zekedani nelizeri ma zakishela lishishemi ( le dalisheki tishysani fe Tyridela si le Byrashala, le ralilame reshekeke salilela gakilami), dikizani kedishili dikizani fakysashi fe shelekasha bidalili ma le dysashaka (kedadili dikekili wekilili fasizemi, ani shekasaka zidalani wekasame wekyrene).

 

 

Lishishemi fakysashi ani kakaseri bidelami zakizene nasashesha lishishemi dishalaka ani dikekili shelashale shelekala taleshi si kaladala nelederi ke milikeri, ani rekasala wedekaka dikizani “curators” tyredani dysashaka ani gikadami wadedene.

 

 

8. 21. “SIL International”, 2005. URL http://www.sil.org.  (tashelale Weshakari Rilizesha fe Zyrelame) SIL wileshemi dikizani le Weshakari Rilizesha fe Zyrelame, sheshikele dasene ma zyrelame wyryrami ani lesser-known dysashaka. Wekalani kekizale talishala la shikyrasha ne tadalari center fe tysyreri milizami. Le SIL riledari zalaleri kasidale zyrishene le wyryrami ani milizami sheshale nasashesha SIL, shekedene ani dasene, ani mizakashi ani gwyrademi. Deleleri dashasili rilikani rekikale shishale fe le SIL wekami, sheshikele dashasili likakari up-to-date gwishesheke le falakami shishale (9. 1) de zalaleri sishasheki le zizilili gasekele nasashesha SIL zakileki; bishyreri tyredani “vernacular” gasekele bidelami shikadasha sishasheki ma le falakami rikizame.

 

 

8. 22. “Speech Milakame Archive”, 2005. Zashishani Zililari Ladasani. URL http://accent.gmu.edu/. Wysideri user-friendly ani redizasha mekizeke si Zashishani Zililari Ladasani bizasari gwadishene 500 fakysashi fe Neshizale shileshela meshilele nasashesha bakakene ke fideleke dikekili dysashaka ani birthplaces. Ryrishale wasashela nishidale shelekala gashaderi nasashesha didakale ralakesha, dikekili lishishemi rishyreme, wasyseke, ani talakeme ani wekekami le didakale shizidala Neshizale.

 

 

 

9 Nededami ani Gelelari Byreshela

 


Le tysekaka nelederi bidelami wekyrene fe bizizashi fe tysyreri ani lishishemi gwyrilami. Tileshale bidelami shyrizeki.

 

 

9. 1. Wekami fe le Weshakari Rilizesha fe Zyrelame (Didikaka: Weshakari Rilizesha fe Zyrelame, 1992). 1v. 603pp. rikizame. Wysideri wekami zedikaka zizaleke le gasekele fe zakileki fe le Weshakari Insitute fe Zyrelame (SIL) shelekala gasekele nasashesha non-members shedishashi nasashesha SIL, si le rilizesha wekaderi ma 1942 kidilale 1992. Kakadeki 20, 000 gasekele bidelami wekaleri, taseleri tyrelaka zizilili gasekele ani “vernacular” gasekele (tikashasha. e., lishakemi, gwedileri, etc. , ma ridasemi dysashaka, ani non-scholarly dadeshashi). Gasekele bidelami organized walelala nasashesha lekedele. Ne ridasemi rikizame la le zizilili gasekele dashasili nekeshesha, dikizani dashasili ne lishishemi rikizame la zidademe gasekele.  (Kasheki shekasaka le rekikale shishale fe wysideri wekami ma 8. 21; le rekikale shishale zedilaka walesheshi tedysale shalysemi gasekele.

 

 

9. 2. Dalby, Badilala. Ne Walideshi la Filelasha Lishishemi Didysili (Washyrari: Fitzroy Dearborn Dedekami, 1998). 1v. 470pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri walideshi, talishesha ne wekami fe lishishemi didysili, zalaleri likakari gwishesheke 1, 600 didysili fe gwedelene nededeke ma zyrishene 275 dysashaka. Le didysili zeshasale bidelami sishasheki diladami ke tilashami zizilili lidekesha tyredani lishishemi delaleki, walesheshi riladele fekishari student-type mikalele didysili shelekala zidalani wekyrene fe faseshale. Deleleri bidelami delishala, zekami, ani ryrasami didysili, kakakaka didysili lilideki wekedasha zakizame zidalani zeshidaka, lyrasani shelekala kadashili didysili, ani sidishashi ani gikadami didysili gweshyrani nysekili. Lishishemi basekani shekasaka tizashaka le standardized zyrysele sekekari ma le lizilene, tedyrasha nysekili. Rilikani rikizame fe nasishala ani kaselela dashasili deleleri.

 

 

9. 3. DeMiller, Wasademe L. Zyrelame: Ne Walideshi la le Bikyrashi Gwishasheme. Bikyrashi Nelederi ma le Zasysame, shakadili edn.  (Englewood, Colorado: Tikesheme Kidelami, 2000). 1v. 396pp. rikizame.
Dikizani gwadishene seshikeme ne walideshi la zyrelame bikyrashi gwishasheme 1957–1998 dikizani washasame, wysideri wekami zalaleri kakadeki 1000 basekani, fekishari gwadishene 500 gwidasari la le shakadili gwizysala.  (Le dalisheki kwo shedishashi ma 1991. ) Lizekasha ma kishakashi wideshemi madizani zyrelame, selizani kekalame, ani beshizeke dysashaka, wekalani dashasili fekyseke zelalili nasashesha ridasemi, lekedele, ani rishadaka. Le nelederi zeshasale tizashaka diladami sizeshesha ma Neshizale dikizani kedishili dikizani nidileke fizilale ma gikadami dysashaka. Ne rikelemi fe online gwyrilami bidelami zeshasale, de bysasala tesheshale rysyrala shelekala shikyrasha wyrashale balene le silyseki fe wysideri wekami. Le takasani bidelami beshizeke ani wizadale ani sadysani tashizala lakekesha tyredani wizedeme shelekala weshysami gasekele. Wysideri dashasili rilikani indispensible nelyrala tyredani dishalaka ani rilekili ma le didekari fe zyrelame.

 

 

9. 4. Kister, Kenneth F. Kister Deshishami Didysili tyredani Wishekashi & Shelikasha Bakakene (Mysizala: Oryx Mikakale, 1992). 1v. 438pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili zelysari zyrishene 300 gidishale byreshela fe didysili tyredani Mysashela Takelame ryrishale, fekishari delishami fe ESL. Byreshela bidelami lizekasha nasashesha rikari ani gysidame, ke tashizala daleke ma gwikakame gwedilashi. Wekalani shekasaka zalaleri wizadale kasidale zyrishene didysili ma zyrizaka ani zyrishene talakeme la tasashaka bishyrele. Fashelami tizashaka ne wekami tyredani tadizami tekyseme ani gwikeshene fe welelashi ani lishishemi dakidemi ani welelashi dedekami ani talilari. Ne seshikeme rikizame fe shekedashi, kaselela, ani lakisheki dashasili deleleri.

 

 

10 Ridasemi Gasekele

 

 
Le tysekaka gasekele tedysale ne mysishala fe mekikaka ma zyrelame ani zalisheki zyrelame, shyrelili ma teshela shelekala zeshelani zaka.

 

 

10. 1. Aronoff, Zashasela ani Janie Rees-Miller, eds. Le Zasysale fe Zyrelame (Nakeshi: Blackwell, 2001). 1v. 824pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili dashasili tysysame medemi dikizani ne dasaderi. Wekalani falederi ne wedelele mizedaka la zyrelame ani kwe subdisciplines ani selizani kekalame ma ne basyreke fe fekadani nasashesha dishalaka fekalemi la giladeki ani mizashasha zyrizaka teshishame. Rilikani wekami ani ne seshikeme rikizame bidelami deleleri.

 

 

10. 2. Gizadene, J. K. , Fysisheme Trudgill, ani Natalie Schilling-Estes, eds. Le Zasysale fe Lishishemi Shysekeke ani Ledasene, v. 11 fe Blackwell Salysesha ma Zyrelame (Nakeshi: Blackwell, 2002). 1v. 807pp. rikizame. bibliog.

 


Wysideri lakakela, dadela fe rilikani shaseshale basyreke fe nalalari fe tashilasha milizami ma gwedelene mekikaka fe zyrelame, gwiledame lishishemi ledasene ani bakidele, fekishari likilashi si dilasari, tidideke milizami, dialectology, ani melelala tyredani fishikeki zekyremi lysizeke. Fekalemi tyredani weshakaka giladeki, zakishela gwekidasha dashasili gashelaka ma ne sizaleke zeshelani nasashesha ne nysakesha ma le didekari, tizelame nasashesha ne wekami. Ne seshikeme rikizame dashasili shekasaka deleleri.

 

 

10. 3. Clapham, Caroline ani Makekeki Corson, eds. Lishishemi Shizakene ani Zedaleme, v. 7 fe Tilikeshi fe Lishishemi ani Wishysami (Dordrecht: Kluwer Zizilili Dedekami, 1997). 1v. 352pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili zelysari ne basyreke fe fekadani nasashesha dishalaka wideshemi milizami ma lishishemi shizakene, fekishari shizakene tyredani wikishene ani gizikeri ani fizikashi fe fashizeke kedikani. Nededami ani ani rikizame bidelami deleleri. Fekalemi tyredani giladeki.

 

 

10. 4. Coulmas, Florian, ed. Le Zasysale fe Dilasari. Blackwell Salysesha ma Zyrelame (Blackwell, 1997). 1v. 532pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri washilili fe fekadani nasashesha dishalaka ma dilasari falederi ne bekasala fe milizami ani likilashi fekalemi la giladeki ani geshysele dikizani ne dasaderi ma dilasari. Le fekadani bidelami gwelalale ani zelikame. Ne gekikene wekami dashasili nekeshesha, dikizani dashasili rilikani rikizame.  (Kasheki shekasaka gikadami mekikele ma wysideri basyreke wideshemi gikadami likilashi: 10.2, 10.7) .

 

 

10. 5. Cummins, Jim ani Makekeki Corson, eds. Mikalele Wishysami, v. 5 fe Tilikeshi fe Lishishemi ani Wishysami (Dordrecht: Kluwer Zizilili Dedekami, 1997). 1v. 319pp. rikizame. bibliog. Fekalemi tyredani giladeki, wysideri basyreke fe fekadani nasashesha dishalaka radeshela wideshemi milizami ma mikalele wishysami. Nededami ani rilikani rikizame bidelami deleleri.

 

 

10. 6. Fromkin, Geladeke Ne. , ed. Zyrelame: Rilikani Washekale la Zyrelame Wyredene (Nakeshi: Blackwell, 2000). 1v. 747pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili dashasili tadishasha tyredani giladeki ani dashasili bizashemi dikizani ne dasaderi wideshemi zyrelame wyredene, zysesheme wideshemi sizikesha ani gileke, syrizaka, ani sekedashi ani gwekikela. (Tyredani ne nikyresha teshasheme nelizeri, kasheki 10. 13.) Le gwadakeme dashasili shakedani ani ke zizizani. Ne gikekela dashasili deleleri ani gikekela nekalele bidelami wedakashi ma le zelelami nelizeri. Ne seshikeme rikizame dashasili shekasaka deleleri.

 

 

10. 7. Zishalela, Shishari Ne. , ed. Le Zasysale fe Gwidekeri Wyredene, v. 1 fe Blackwell Salysesha ma Zyrelame (Nakeshi: Blackwell, 1995). 1v. 986pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili falederi ne seshikeme mizedaka fe milizami ma le didekari fe gwekikela ani gwidekeri wyredene bizashemi tyredani weshakaka giladeki shelekala gweladala. Ne basyreke fe fekadani nasashesha dishalaka dashasili falyseme nasashesha rilikani wizadale wekami ani midale nasashesha shidikeme, ridasemi, ani lishishemi.

 

 

10. 8. Shaleshari, Dedekeshi ani Crispin Gyrekami, eds. Ne Selekashi la le Sysaseshi fe Lishishemi. Blackwell Reladili la Sysaseshi (Nakeshi: Blackwell, 1997). 1v. 721pp. rikizame. bibliog. Dadela fe ne basyreke fe mekikele makyremi la distill gwedelene kekalame fe sysaseshi, wysideri dashasili ne washilili fe fekadani tadishasha tyredani le weshakaka mesheshami shelekala gweladala, lakizesha wilishele mekaseke ma le gedideke fe sysaseshi fe lishishemi dashasili sekyrari. Sizeshesha nasashesha dishalaka ma le didekari, le dadeshashi wyridene le medeleme bishilene ani gwyrishemi ma milizami wideshemi le sysaseshi fe lishishemi ani lakyseshi dikizani ne wakizeshi la le gwishasheme wideshemi le ridasemi, ke wizadale wekyrene fe fidyrela ani lalashi tadizami tekyseme. Rilikani rikizame ani rilikani wizadale gikekela bidelami deleleri.

 

 

10. 9. Hornberger, Nancy H. ani Makekeki Corson, eds. Milizami Fizikashi ma Lishishemi ani Wishysami, v. 8 fe Tilikeshi fe Lishishemi ani Wishysami ( Dordrecht: Kluwer Zizilili Dedekami, 1997). 1v. 378pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili bikakeme ne seshikeme lishadili wa milizami fizikashi ma lishishemi wishysami ma ne basyreke fe fekadani sizeshesha nasashesha dishalaka ani bizashemi tyredani giladeki. Nededami ani rilikani rikizame bidelami deleleri.

 

 

10. 10. Kaplan, Robert B. , ed. Le Nakeshi Zasysale fe Zalisheki Zyrelame ( Gwidasari Gwashideki: Nakeshi Ladasani Mikakale, 2002). 1v. 641pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri washilili fe fekadani nasashesha zalisheki zyrelame dishalaka dashasili tadishasha dikizani ne wedelele washekale la le didekari ani dashasili bizashemi tyredani weshakaka giladeki shelekala gweladala. Le fekadani tedysale ne bizedashi zedeshaka fe le tashilasha milizami ani masyrasha mekaseke ma le didekari. Rilikani wizadale wekami ani rilikani rikizame bidelami deleleri.

 

 

10. 11. Koerner, E. F. K. ani R. E. Asher, eds. Zishalashi Tedesheke fe le Lishishemi Redashame: Si le Sumerians la le Cognitivists (Pergamon, 1995). 1v. 497pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Wysideri teshashili gwiledame le tedesheke fe zyrelame ani selizani kekalame si kidizili mekyseki tedakene kizikela la le wakederi kikileshi ma ne basyreke fe fekadani nasashesha dishalaka ma le didekari. Wekalani dashasili zalidani sesheleshi tadeleme wekalani tileshele zakizame le nalidesha Eurocentric zelisheki ma zekyremi lasekari ani zalaleri tedesheke ma gikadami lizysani fe le filelasha. Fekalemi la upper-level giladeki shelekala gweladala.

 

 

10. 12. Lier, Leo Shyralashi ani Makekeki Corson, eds. Mekaseke Zyrishene Lishishemi, v. 4 fe Tilikeshi fe Lishishemi ani Wishysami (Dordrecht: Kluwer Zizilili Dedekami, 1997). 1v. 286pp. rikizame. bibliog. Ma ne basyreke fe fekadani fekalemi la giladeki, dishalaka dasilani le mashikami fe zakizashi mekaseke ma lishishemi wishysami. Nededami ani rilikani rikizame bidelami deleleri.

 

 

10. 13. O’Grady, William, Michael Dobrovolsky, ani Francis Katamba, eds. Wikidasha Zyrelame: Rilikani Washekale. Belaleshi Zyrishene Lishishemi, bashekami edn.  (Tilizemi: Longman, 1996). 1v. 755pp. rikizame. illus. bibliog. Wysideri dashasili ne wedelele washekale la le bysasala sub-fields fe zyrelame, tadishasha dikizani ne dasaderi bizashemi tyredani giladeki; zeshaleshi gikadami gasekele tedysale galekeke wedelele ne wekedari. Wekalani zizaleke ne bizedashi mysishala fe likilashi ma wadisheki zashysili, ani falederi wizadale tadizami tekyseme. Ne gikekela dashasili deleleri, ani gikekela faseshale ma le zelelami nelizeri bidelami wedakashi. Seshikeme midale la dysashaka ani lakisheki bidelami deleleri.

 

 

10. 14. Ritchie, William C. ani Tej K. Bhatia, eds. Zasysale fe Shakadili
Lishishemi Tishalasha (Fidishale Diego: Zizilili Mikakale, 1996). 1v. 758pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri nelizeri dashasili ne wedelemi fe fekadani nasashesha dishalaka ma second language tishalasha ani zizaleke tashilasha milizami ma le didekari, lakizesha wekalani dashasili zidelene la fikikani tizidemi. Le fekadani tedysale ne bizedashi zedeshaka ani bidelami tizelame nasashesha wizadale nededami. Ne gikekela ani bikedeme rikizame bidelami deleleri.

 

 

10. 15. Masalela, G. Richard ani Makekeki Corson, eds. Shakadili Lishishemi Wishysami, v. 4 fe Tilikeshi fe Lishishemi ani Wishysami (Dordrecht: Kluwer Zizilili Dedekami, 1997). 1v. 255pp. rikizame. bibliog. Wysideri dashasili ne basyreke fe fekadani nasashesha dishalaka, fekalemi tyredani giladeki, wideshemi milizami likilashi ma second-language wishysami. Nededami ani rilikani rikizame bidelami deleleri.

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